Testicular cancer – Explained by best oncologist in India

Testicular cancerThis article by Dr. Sandeep Nayak, the best oncologist in India, describes testicular cancer for you.

The male gland, known as a testicle or testis, is where testicular cancer begins (two are called testicles or testes). Though it can afflict men and boys of any age, it is most common in men between 15 and 44. It’s a relatively uncommon condition that’s also quite treatable. Testicular cancer can be cured if caught early. In addition, the chance of death from this cancer is low if it is treated.

The type of cancer cell, whether it has spread, and the patient’s overall condition all influence how effectively a patient responds to treatment. Doctors treating testicular cancer will try to keep adverse effects to a minimum.

Men are encouraged to learn about early indicators of testicular cancer, learn how to perform a testicular self-exam, and speak with a health care practitioner if they see a suspicious lump, swelling, or pain in the area.

Diagnosis-

India’s leading oncologist, Dr. Sandeep Nayak, describes some self-examination procedure of the testicles:

After a warm bath or shower, when the scrotum is relaxed, the optimum time to undertake a testicular self-exam is while standing. It takes only a few minutes. To begin:

  1. Examine each testicle separately. Roll each testicle between your thumb and forefinger gently but firmly. Feel the entire area. The testis should be the same stiffness all the way around. One testis may be slightly larger than the other, which is typical.
  2. Locate the vas deferens and epididymis. Above and beneath the testicle, these are soft, tube-like structures. These tubes are used to collect and transport sperm. Just get a feel for how these cords feel.
  3. Look for lumps, edema, or other abnormalities. It is not natural to have lumps or bumps (even if they cause no pain). Likewise, it is not customary to be in pain.
  4. Do a self-check at least once a month. Any changes in size, shape, or texture should always be observed.

You should seek medical care if you discover a lump or other changes over time. It could be nothing, but if it’s testicular cancer, it can swiftly spread. Testicular cancer is very treatable if caught early. Speak with your urologist if you have any questions or concerns.

Testicular cancer treatment

Medical Examination-

Your urologist will review your medical history and conduct a physical examination. They’ll look for cancer signals in your scrotum, belly (abdomen), lymph nodes, and other areas. If you have a history of undescended testes, tell them.

Ultrasound of the testicles is used to examine the scrotum and to look for a suspicious bulge. If your doctor wants to view your chest or abdomen, he or she may order further scans or x-rays. This procedure determines whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes, the lungs, or the liver. MRIs are rarely utilized, but they are sometimes required to examine the brain and spinal cord.

A blood test is performed to check for tumor markers. Some testicular tumors produce these proteins and hormones. Although some malignancies grow tumor markers such as AFP, ACG, and LDH, many testicular tumors do not. To put it another way, just because your tumor markers are typical does not mean you are cancer-free. Inquire with your doctor about your tumor marker levels and learn what is familiar and what is not.

Tumor markers (AFP, HCG, and LDH) should be evaluated in the blood before any therapy, such as surgery. If cancer is discovered, tumor marker tests will be repeated following treatment to monitor your progress. Some medications and marijuana might cause HCG levels to be falsely positive. Inform your doctor about any medications you’re taking or marijuana use.

Treatment-

The best oncologist in India, Dr. Sandeep Nayak, shares his way of treating his patients here. A group of doctors (urologist, oncologist, and radiation oncologist) will frequently collaborate to determine the optimal treatment approach for each patient. Choices will be made based on the patient’s particular diagnosis and overall condition. There are several treatment options available, including:

  • Surveillance
  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy

Men should discuss their desire to have a child with their urologist before beginning any treatment. Following specific treatments, infertility and alterations in male hormones are prevalent. Therefore, before treatment, sperm banking may be beneficial, especially if you plan to have children in the future.

Before surgery, men can inquire about a testicular prosthesis (fake body part). After a testis is removed, this means making the testicles look more “natural.”

Surgery-

The most common therapy for testicular cancer is surgery. An orchiectomy is a procedure that removes the entire testis. Other options may be available depending on the diagnosis. First and foremost, changes in infertility should be discussed.

Both early-stage and later-stage testicular cancer are diagnosed and treated via orchiectomy. Through a tiny cut in the groin, the entire testicle and bulk are removed. Also eliminated is the spermatic cord. With this procedure, the cell type will be confirmed, and the stage will be determined.

Following surgery, regular monitoring is carried out to ensure that cancer does not recur.

Testosterone levels should be good if one testicle is removed and the other is normal. A healthy testicle should be able to produce enough testosterone. (Ten to fifteen percent of testicular cancer survivors will have low testosterone levels and will be able to receive treatment.)

A testicular prosthesis is an option for men who are self-conscious about their appearance.

TSS (testis-sparing surgery) is only suggested in few circumstances. Only the tumor tissue, not the complete testis, is removed during this procedure. The mass must be tiny, and tumor markers must be negative for this to work. It is excellent for males who have benign tumors instead of malignancy.

After TSS, it’s critical to keep a close eye on the patient because cancer can come back. In addition, other adverse effects, such as infertility, may occur. TSS is not indicated if the tumor is cancerous and the male has a normal testicle on the other side.

Radiation-

Dr. Sandeep Nayak, India’s finest oncologist, believes that to eliminate cancer cells on the testis or adjacent lymph nodes, radiation is utilized. Because some non-seminoma malignancies are resistant to radiation, it is employed for seminoma-cell malignancies. If testicular cancer (of any form) has progressed to other organs, such as the brain, it may be an option. There are a few different types of radiation therapy that are employed.

Chemotherapy-

Chemotherapy is used to treat malignancies that have progressed beyond the testicles or treat tumor markers that have increased after surgery. Tumor indicators in the blood and imaging tests can assist in determining how much chemotherapy to use and whether it will help.

These medications create adverse effects as they move through the bloodstream. However, they can eliminate cancer cells that have spread to lymph nodes. It’s also used to help reduce the chances of cancer returning following surgery.

For the treatment of testicular cancer, more than one chemotherapy medication may be used. Three to four three-week cycles of these medications are given. Following chemo, further surgery may be required to remove tumors.

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