Geography GK Notes for Competitive exams – Indian Soil Notes

Geography GK Notes for Competitive exams – Indian Soil Notes

Geography GK Notes – Welcome to! In today’s class we will discuss some Geography GK questions with special Notes. At first we will discuss Indian soils, types and their properties. Later we will cover some Geography GK questions related to Indian agriculture and crops.

In the final part we will discuss some more Geography GK questions and answers which were previously asked in exams. So, let’s start!!

Geography GK Notes for Competitive exams - Indian Soil Notes

Geography GK notes – Indian soils, types and properties

Indian soils types-

ICAR [Indian council of agricultural research] divided Indian soils into 8 major groups-

1. Alluvial soils

2. Black soils

3. Red soils

4. Laterite soils

5. Forest mountain soils

6. Arid desert soils

7. Saline alkaline soils

8. Peaty marshy soils

We can also classify the soil in 12 types  – 

1. Alluvial

2. Black

3. Red

4. Laterite

5. Yellow

6. Arid

7. Mountain

8. Forest

9. Alkaline

10. Saline

11. Marshy

12. Peaty

Alluvial soils-

– Most important and largest area covered in India

– Largest share of agriculture

– Derived from rivers at Indo-gangetic plain and some are formed in coastal areas by sea waves

– One of the most fertile soil group in world

– Major types – New/young khadar, Old khadar, Bhangar

– Suited for irrigation, canal, well, tube

– Crops – rice, wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, maize, jute, oil seeds, fruits, vegetables

Geography GK Notes

Black soils-

– Also known as Regur, Black cotton soil

– Major crop cotton grown in this soil

– Formed by solidification of lava spread during volcano in Deccan plateau

– High fertile and retentive to moisture

– Major crops – cotton, wheat, jowar, sunflower, millets, sugarcane, rice, vegetables, fruits

Red soils-

– Formed due to weathering of ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks

– Red colour is due to high percentage of iron content

Laterite soils-

– Formed under high temperature and heavy rainfall conditions

– Mainly found in western ghats, eastern ghats, Satpuras, Rajmahal hills, Vindhyas, Malwa plateau

– Lack of fertility therefore little use of crop production

Forest mountain soils-

– Found in hill slopes areas covered by forests

– Formed due to decomposition of organic matter from forest

– Found in Himalayan region, western ghats, eastern ghats, some part of Peninsular plateau

Arid deserts soils-

– Found in Rajasthan, Aravalis, Rann of kuchch

Saline alkaline soils-

– Found in AP and Karnataka

– Also found in drier areas of UP, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra

– Also known by different names like Reh, Usar, Kallar, Thur, Rakar, Chopan, Karl

Peaty marshy soils-

– Originates in humid regions as result of accumulation of large amounts of organic matters in soils

– Found in Kerala, Odisha, Tamil nadu, WB [sunderban], Bihar, Uttaranchal [Almora]

Some important Geography GK Questions answers related to soil, crop and agriculture based on competitive exam pattern

Q. From the following options choose the factor which affect the formation of soil –

a. Micro organisms

b. Time

c. Climate

d. Soil materials

e. All the above

Ans. e

Q. Soil which is made up of Layers –

a. Solum

b. Hume

c. Loess

d. Horizon

Ans. d

Q. Alluvial soil covers how much percentage of the total Indian land ?

a. more than 50%

b. more than 40%

c. more than 65%

d. more than 80%

Ans. b

Q. The mineral found in Red soil is

a. Phosphorous

b. Iron

c. Aluminium

d. Magnesium

Ans. b

Geography GK notes and MCQs

Q. In the cultivation of which of the following crop, Arid soil is used ?

a. Potato

b. Cotton

c. Fruits

d. Cashew nut

Ans. b

Q. Khadar and Bangar falls in which of the following soils category ?

a. Black

b. Laterite

c. Alluvial

d. Peaty

Ans. c

Q. The scientific study of soil is called

a. Soil chemistry

b. sericulture

c. earth study

d. agriculture

e. pedology

Ans. e

Q. Which of the following is called a commercial crop ?

a. Jowar

b. Bajra

c. Cotton

d. Paddy

Ans. c

Q. Monoculture is known as

a. commercial grain farming

b. subsitence farming

c. shifting cultivation

d. specialized horticulture

Ans. a

Few more Geography GK Questions which were asked in previous government jobs exams and competitive exams-

1. Which one of the following states has the longest coastal line

a. Maharashtra

b. Tamil nadu

c. Gujarat

d. Andhra pradesh

Ans. c

2. North western Railways headquarter

a. Jaipur

b. Ajmer

c. Baroda

Ans. a

3. Which areas produces largest amount of cotton in India

a. Plains of north India

b. North western India

c. Western and southern India

d. Northern and western India

Ans. c

4. Diphu pass connects

a. Arunachal pradesh with China

b. China with Myanmaar

c. Manipur with Myanmaar

Ans. b

5. Nagarjuna sagar dam is in which river

a. Narmada river

b. Krishna river

c. Bhramaputra river

Ans. b

# It is in Andhra pradesh

6. Where is Kanha tiger reserve

a. Andhra pradesh

b. Madhya pradesh

c. Uttar pradesh

Ans. b

7. Best source of pure cellulose

a. Jute fibre

b. Coir

c. Cotton fibre

Ans. c

8. Which country is known as ‘cockpit of Europe’

a. Belgium

b. Holland

c. France

Ans. a

9. Biggest continent of the world

a. Africa

b. Asia

c. South america

Ans. b

Important Geography GK questions answers

10. The outer Himalayas correspond with

a. Karakoram range

b. Hindukush range

c. Shiwalik range

Ans. b

11. Institute of Petroleum reservoir studies

a. Lucknow

b. Kolkata

c. Ahmedabad

d. Baroda

Ans. c

12. Which has the largest shipyard in India

a. Visakapattnam

b. Kochi

c. Kolkata

Ans. b

13. Gandhi sagar dam is a part of which project

a. Kosi project

b. Chambal project

c. Bhakra nagal project

Ans. b

14. Tapi river rises in – Madhya pradesh

15. Mahanadi river rises in – Chattisgarh

16. Godavari river rises in – Maharashtra

Also read –

Geography GK notes – Dams and rivers in India

One liner GK questions answers