General Knowledge Notes – History – Harappa Indus Civilisation and Important sites

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In today’s article we will discuss about the Harappa, mohanjodaro and indus valley civilization. We will also discuss the important sites in Indus valley civilisation. We have prepared a complete note on this topic by covering all the important materials related to Harappa, Mohanjodaro and Indus valley civilisation.

We have prepared the notes in simple one liner manner, so that you can memorize them easily!!

General Knowledge Notes - History - Harappa Indus Civilisation and Important sites

GK Questions Answers – Indian History – Harappan Indus Civilisation

Important points and introduction

1. Oldest name – Indus civilisation (Indus valley civilisation)

2. Harappa is the 1st discovered site therefore also known as Harappan civilisation

3. The civilisation is also called as Indus-saraswati civilization (as 80% of settlement were done along Saraswati river)

4. At first the term ‘Indus civilization’ was used by John Marshall (he was a Scholar)

5. The indus civilisation belongs to Bronze age / Chalcolithic age

6. The civilization was spread to – Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra (northern part), Uttar pradesh (western part)

7. Different geographical parts of Indus civilization –

* North part – Ropar (Punjab), Manda (Jammu in Jammu and Kashmir)

* South part – Bhagatrav (Gujarat), Daimabad (Maharashtra)

* Eastern part – Alamgirpur (Uttar pradesh)

* Western part – Sutkagen dor (Pakistan-Iran border)

8. Important capital cities of Harappan indus civilisation – Mohenjodaro, Harappa

9. Important port cities during this period –

Lothal – Gujarat

Sutkagen dor – Pakistan Iran border

Allahdino – Karachi, Pakistan

Balakot – Pakistan

Kuntasi – Gujarat

Important sites of this period with their special characteristics which generally comes in exam

Harappa

* This site was in Pakistan (then Punjab, Sahiwal district)

* This site was excavated by Daya ram sahni

# Harappa is the 1st discovered site of this civilisation

# It was excavated in the year 1921

# It was the major urban centre

# It was located on the bank of river Ravi

# Harappa was the meeting point of trade routes from the east during that period

# Important findings of this civilisation which were asked in exam

  • pottery
  • chert blades
  • copper, bronze implements
  • seals, sealing
  • two rows granaries with bricks
  • vanity case
  • evidence of coffin burial
  • copper bullock cart

History General Knowledge Notes for Mohenjodaro site –

Mohenjodaro

* Near river Indus

* Located in Pakistan (Sindh, Larkana district)

* Excavated by Rakhal das bannerji

# Also called Mound of dead

# Excavated in the year 1922

# Also known as largest urban centre during that time

# Important findings of this site –

  • great bath (6×12 meter with beautiful brick work)
  • hidden drains
  • unicorn seals
  • Bronze dancing girl
  • Seal of pashupati
  • statue of bearded priest

Chanhudaro

* This site was near the river Indus

* Located in Pakistan (Sindh, Nawabshah district)

# Situated 130 km south of Mohenjodaro

# Artisans lived near this site as proof of many artist works have been found here like toys, seals, various figurines

Lothal

* Near river Bhogava

* Located in India (Gujarat, Ahmedabad)

# It was one of the popular coastal town in Indus valley civilization like Suktagendor and Balakot

# It has different types of town planning

# Important findings of this site –

  • Artificial dockyard
  • Sea link with Mesopotamia
  • Rice husk
  • Bead making factory

History General Knowledge Notes

Kalibangan

# Also known as black bangles

# It was in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan

# Site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori

# Site was later excavated by A.Ghosh

# There were no drainage system in Kalibangan

# Important findings of this site –

  • fire altars
  • charging bull
  • tiled floor
  • bones of camels
  • circular and rectangular burials graves

Dholovira

# Located in Rann of Katchh, Gujarat

# Dholovira excavated in the 1990’s by R.S.Bisht with his team

# Important findings in Dholovira –

  • large reservoirs
  • drain system to collect water from house tops and city walls

Suktagendor

# It was located on the bank of Dasht river (near Iran border)

# It was a coastal town

# Suktagendor was originally a port

# It had trade routes with Babylon

Ropar

# It was excavated by Y.D. Sharma

Banawali

# Located in Hissar, Haryana

# High quality Barley were found here

Alamgirpur

# Located in Uttar pradesh (Meerut)

# It was the easternmost boundary of Indus valley civilization

# Important findings of this site –

  • plant fossils
  • animal bones
  • pottery
  • copper tools

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