General Knowledge Notes – History – Harappa Indus Civilisation and Important sites

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In today’s article we will discuss about the Harappa, mohanjodaro and indus valley civilization. We will also discuss the important sites in Indus valley civilisation. We have prepared a complete note on this topic by covering all the important materials related to Harappa, Mohanjodaro and Indus valley civilisation.

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General Knowledge Notes - History - Harappa Indus Civilisation and Important sites

GK Questions Answers – Indian History – Harappan Indus Civilisation

Important points and introduction

1. Oldest name – Indus civilisation (Indus valley civilisation)

2. Harappa is the 1st discovered site therefore also known as Harappan civilisation

3. The civilisation is also called as Indus-saraswati civilization (as 80% of settlement were done along Saraswati river)

4. At first the term ‘Indus civilization’ was used by John Marshall (he was a Scholar)

5. The indus civilisation belongs to Bronze age / Chalcolithic age

6. The civilization was spread to – Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra (northern part), Uttar pradesh (western part)

7. Different geographical parts of Indus civilization –

* North part – Ropar (Punjab), Manda (Jammu in Jammu and Kashmir)

* South part – Bhagatrav (Gujarat), Daimabad (Maharashtra)

* Eastern part – Alamgirpur (Uttar pradesh)

* Western part – Sutkagen dor (Pakistan-Iran border)

8. Important capital cities of Harappan indus civilisation – Mohenjodaro, Harappa

9. Important port cities during this period –

Lothal – Gujarat

Sutkagen dor – Pakistan Iran border

Allahdino – Karachi, Pakistan

Balakot – Pakistan

Kuntasi – Gujarat

Important sites of this period with their special characteristics which generally comes in exam


* This site was in Pakistan (then Punjab, Sahiwal district)

* This site was excavated by Daya ram sahni

# Harappa is the 1st discovered site of this civilisation

# It was excavated in the year 1921

# It was the major urban centre

# It was located on the bank of river Ravi

# Harappa was the meeting point of trade routes from the east during that period

# Important findings of this civilisation which were asked in exam

  • pottery
  • chert blades
  • copper, bronze implements
  • seals, sealing
  • two rows granaries with bricks
  • vanity case
  • evidence of coffin burial
  • copper bullock cart

History General Knowledge Notes for Mohenjodaro site –


* Near river Indus

* Located in Pakistan (Sindh, Larkana district)

* Excavated by Rakhal das bannerji

# Also called Mound of dead

# Excavated in the year 1922

# Also known as largest urban centre during that time

# Important findings of this site –

  • great bath (6×12 meter with beautiful brick work)
  • hidden drains
  • unicorn seals
  • Bronze dancing girl
  • Seal of pashupati
  • statue of bearded priest


* This site was near the river Indus

* Located in Pakistan (Sindh, Nawabshah district)

# Situated 130 km south of Mohenjodaro

# Artisans lived near this site as proof of many artist works have been found here like toys, seals, various figurines


* Near river Bhogava

* Located in India (Gujarat, Ahmedabad)

# It was one of the popular coastal town in Indus valley civilization like Suktagendor and Balakot

# It has different types of town planning

# Important findings of this site –

  • Artificial dockyard
  • Sea link with Mesopotamia
  • Rice husk
  • Bead making factory

History General Knowledge Notes


# Also known as black bangles

# It was in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan

# Site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori

# Site was later excavated by A.Ghosh

# There were no drainage system in Kalibangan

# Important findings of this site –

  • fire altars
  • charging bull
  • tiled floor
  • bones of camels
  • circular and rectangular burials graves


# Located in Rann of Katchh, Gujarat

# Dholovira excavated in the 1990’s by R.S.Bisht with his team

# Important findings in Dholovira –

  • large reservoirs
  • drain system to collect water from house tops and city walls


# It was located on the bank of Dasht river (near Iran border)

# It was a coastal town

# Suktagendor was originally a port

# It had trade routes with Babylon


# It was excavated by Y.D. Sharma


# Located in Hissar, Haryana

# High quality Barley were found here


# Located in Uttar pradesh (Meerut)

# It was the easternmost boundary of Indus valley civilization

# Important findings of this site –

  • plant fossils
  • animal bones
  • pottery
  • copper tools

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