Female infertility – Infertility is defined as a year of unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant. An estimated 10% to 18% of couples have difficulty conceiving or delivering a healthy baby.
Female factors cause infertility around one-third of the time, and male factors cause infertility approximately one-third of the time. In the other cases, the etiology is either unknown or a mixture of male and female variables.
The reasons for female infertility can be challenging to pinpoint. There are a variety of therapies available, depending on the grounds of infertility. Without treatment, many infertile couples will be able to conceive a child. About 95% of couples who have been trying to conceive for two years can do so.
Signs and Symptoms-
According to Dr. H.B Patel, one of the best IVF doctor in Ahmedabad, the inability to conceive is the most common sign of infertility. You may not be ovulating if your menstrual cycle is excessively lengthy (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular, or missing. In addition, there may be no further symptoms or indicators visible to the naked eye.
When should you see an infertility specialist?
When you should seek help from infertility doctor can vary depending on your age:
- Most doctors advocate attempting to conceive for at least a year before testing or therapy till you’re 35 years old.
- If you’re between the ages of 35 and 40, talk to your doctor after six months of trying.
- If you’re over 40, your doctor could recommend that you start testing or treatment immediately.
Suppose you or your spouse has had previous reproductive problems or has a history of irregular or painful periods, pelvic inflammatory disease, repeated miscarriages, prior cancer treatment, or endometriosis. In that case, your doctor may want to start testing or therapy right away.
Each of these elements is necessary to conceive:
- You must ovulate. Ovulation is the process through which your ovaries generate and release an egg for you to get pregnant. Your doctor can assist you in determining the length of your menstrual cycles and confirming ovulation.
- Your partner is in desperate need of sperm. Unless your partner has a history of illness or surgery, most couples don’t concern about this. Your doctor can perform simple tests to determine the health of your partner’s sperm.
- You must engage in regular intercourse. During your reproductive period, you must have regular sexual intercourse. Your doctor can assist you in determining when you are most fertile.
- You must have a normal uterus and open fallopian tubes. The fallopian tubes are where the egg and sperm connect, and the embryo needs a healthy uterus to grow in.
1. Ovulation problems
Infertility is caused by ovulation abnormalities, which occur when you ovulate infrequently or not at all. The IVF doctor in Ahmedabad believes that ovulation abnormalities affect roughly one in every four infertile couples. Ovulation abnormalities can be caused by issues with the hypothalamus or pituitary gland’s management of reproductive hormones and problems with the ovary.
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a kind of polycystic ovary (PCOS). PCOS results in a hormonal imbalance that interferes with ovulation. PCOS is linked to insulin resistance, obesity, abnormal facial or body hair growth, and acne.
- Dysfunction of the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland produces two chemicals that stimulate ovulation each month: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (LH). Excessive physical or emotional stress, extreme body weight gain or reduction, or a recent significant weight increase or loss can alter hormone production and impact ovulation. The most prevalent symptoms are irregular or nonexistent menstruation.
- Ovarian failure that occurs too soon. This condition, also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, is caused by an immunological response or the premature loss of eggs from your ovary. In women under 40, the ovary no longer produces eggs, and estrogen production is reduced.
- Excess prolactin. Hyperprolactinemia (excess prolactin) is a condition in which the pituitary gland produces too much prolactin, inhibiting estrogen production and leading to infertility. An issue usually causes this with the pituitary gland, but it can also be caused by medications you’re taking for another illness.
2. Damage to fallopian tubes (tubal infertility)
Damaged or clogged fallopian tubes prevent sperm from reaching the egg or prevent the fertilized egg from entering the uterus. Damage or obstruction of the fallopian tube can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
- Pelvic inflammatory disease, a uterine and fallopian tube infection caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, or other sexually transmitted illnesses.
- Previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, such as ectopic pregnancy surgery, in which a fertilized egg implants and develops in a fallopian tube rather than the uterus
Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue usually grows in the uterus implants in other parts of the body. Scarring from this additional tissue growth — and its surgical removal — can clog fallopian tubes and prevent an egg and sperm from joining.
Endometriosis can also harm the uterine lining, preventing the fertilized egg from implanting. In addition, indirect effects of the illness, such as damage to the sperm or egg, appear to impact fertility.
4. Uterine or cervical causes
Several uterine or cervical causes can have an impact on fertility by preventing implantation or raising the risk of miscarriage:
- In the uterus, benign polyps or tumors (fibroids or myomas) are frequent. Some can obstruct fallopian tubes or prevent implantation, reducing fertility. Many women with fibroids or polyps do, however, become pregnant.
- Scarring from endometriosis or inflammation in the uterus can prevent implantation.
- Congenital disabilities in the uterus, such as an irregularly shaped uterus, might make it difficult to get pregnant or stay pregnant.
- Cervical stenosis is a narrowing of the cervix caused by a genetic abnormality or cervix damage.
- The cervix doesn’t always create the correct type of mucus to allow sperm to pass through and enter the uterus.
Infertility can be exacerbated by several circumstances, including:
- Your age: With age, the quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs begin to deteriorate. The rate of follicle loss accelerates in the mid-30s, leading to fewer and lower-quality eggs. This makes it more difficult to conceive and raises the chances of miscarriage.
- Tobacco use: Smoking raises your chances of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to harming your cervix and fallopian tubes. It’s also known to age your ovaries and reduce your eggs prematurely. Before starting fertility treatment, you should quit smoking.
- Body mass index: Obesity or being substantially underweight can interfere with natural ovulation. Increasing the frequency of ovulation and the chances of conception by achieving a healthy body mass index (BMI).
- Your sexual history: The fallopian tubes can be damaged by sexually transmitted illnesses, including chlamydia and gonorrhea. Having unprotected sexual contact with several partners raises your risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection, leading to fertility issues later on.
- Alcoholic beverages: Limit your alcohol intake to no more than one alcoholic drink per day.
Preventative measures –
According to the IVF doctor in Ahmedabad, these suggestions may help ladies who are planning to become pregnant soon or in the future:
- Keep a healthy weight. Ovulation difficulties are more common in overweight and underweight women. Moderate activity is recommended if you need to lose weight. Ovulation has been linked to strenuous, intensive activity for more than five hours per week.
- Give up smoking. Tobacco has several detrimental consequences on fertility, as well as your overall health and that of the fetus. If you’re thinking about starting a family, now is the time to quit smoking.
- Stay away from alcoholic beverages. Heavy drinking can lead to a loss of fertility. And any alcohol consumption during pregnancy can harm the fetus’s health. Avoid alcohol if you’re planning to become pregnant, and don’t drink while you’re pregnant.
- Decrease your stress levels. According to research, couples that are under psychological stress had poorer outcomes with infertility treatment. Find a technique to lessen stress in your life before trying to conceive if at all possible.
- Limit your caffeine intake. Limiting your caffeine intake to fewer than 200 mg per day, according to research, should not harm your ability to conceive. It equates to one to two cups of coffee (6 to 8 ounces) every day.