Brain Surgery Types – The operation to treat issues with the brain and its surrounding tissues is known as brain surgery. The hair on a portion of the scalp is shaved and the region is cleansed prior to surgery. A surgical cut in the scalp is made by the doctor. The placement of this cut is determined by the location of the problem in the brain. A bone flap is removed after the surgeon drills a hole in the skull.
The surgeon will make a smaller hole if possible and insert a tube with a light and camera at the end. An endoscope is what it’s called. Tools will be inserted with the help of the endoscope to do the surgery. An MRI or CT scan can assist the doctor in locating the correct location in the brain.
In this article, Dr. Gurneet Shawney who is one of the best neurosurgeon in India will explain the types of brain surgeries along with the awake brain surgery method.
Craniotomy is basically the surgical removal of the skull. A section of the skull is removed to allow surgeons access to the brain in order to remove abnormal tissue, a brain tumor, blood or blood clots; alleviate pressure following an injury or stroke; repair a skull fracture or brain aneurysm; or treat other brain disorders. After surgery, the section of the skull is replaced.
Biopsy is a term that is used to describe the process of After imaging has revealed a probable problem, biopsies are usually performed. To take brain cells or tissue for pathological evaluation, the neurosurgeon creates an incision in the skull or inserts a needle.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS)
An implantable pulse generator is used which is a battery-operated medical device that delivers electrical stimulation to particular parts of the brain. The most common indications for DBS include movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.
Neuroendoscopy is a procedure that examines the inside of the brain. A narrow tube called an endoscope is threaded through the nose, mouth, or small incisions in the skull that allows access or removal of brain tissue in this minimally invasive procedure. The endoscope is generally equipped with a light and a camera, and the operation is carried out using tools inserted through the endoscope.
One type of neuroendoscopy is endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (also known as endoscopic pituitary surgery). The endoscope is threaded through the nose to remove brain tumors and lesions around the pituitary gland, which is located directly behind the bridge of the nose.
Posterior fossa decompression
The cerebellum and brainstem are two areas of the brain that are treated in this way. To cure a Chiari malformation, for example, the surgeon makes an incision in the back of the patient’s head and removes a little piece of bone from the bottom of the skull. This procedure frees up room for the cerebellum and decreases spinal cord pressure.
Thrombectomy and repair of a cerebral aneurysm
The surgeon uses contrast dye to detect the troublesome blood vessel without opening up the skull, guiding surgical devices such as a catheter or thin metal wires via a big blood vessel to reach the veins of the brain. Patients with a blood clot in a brain artery, or a burst aneurysm that causes bleeding into the brain are the most common candidates for the treatment.
Some patients with brain cancer are treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, which may entail the use of a Gamma Knife, however this is not surgery in the traditional sense, and the “knife” is not truly a knife. Radiation therapy that usually does not require any type of incision is known as radiosurgery. Special equipment, such as the Gamma Knife, accurately administers a high dosage of radiation to tumors or other lesions while minimizing damage to healthy tissue in the surrounding area.
What is “awake” brain surgery, and how does it work?
Awake brain surgery is most commonly used to treat epileptic seizures and Parkinson’s disease, but it’s also becoming more popular for the removal of brain tumors near vital brain functions. You can answer questions that will assist the surgeon identify sections of the brain that are impairing functions like vision, movement, or speech if you remain conscious. This information is used by the surgeon to decide the proper treatment.
Your medical anesthesiologist will still administer sedation and pain relief medication to you during awake brain surgery, and will constantly check your blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygenation while remaining by your side. Your surgeon may also provide a local anesthetic to numb your scalp.
During the procedure, you may or may not be totally awake or cognizant. During surgery, the physician anesthesiologist can change medicine dosages to arouse you just when necessary. Even then, you might not need to be brought to a fully aware condition where you can communicate. Instead, you may be placed in a position where you can respond by squeezing your hand or making another indication. Some patients have no recollection of being awake. Preoperative consultations with your physician anesthesiologist will help alleviate any fears you may have regarding the procedure.